Reproductive Surgery is defined as the surgeries in the field of reproductive medicine. Reproductive surgeons are either gynecologists or surgeons who have specialized in reproductive surgery. Their expertise lay in the conservative treatment of reproductive organs in both men and women. Reproductive surgery includes a long list of procedures. Most operations are done to restore normal uterus, tubes, and ovaries in the females and the reproductive tract in the males.
Female Surgical Treatments:
Laparoscopic surgery is done to remove the endometriotic tissue in the pelvis. These women can conceive on their own or with fertility treatments.
Fibroid tumors may lead to excessive uterine bleeding and recurrent miscarriages Fibroid tumors can be removed via laparotomy or Laparoscopy.
Adhesions can cause major problems with fertility. Pelvic surgery is a big risk factor for tubal infertility. Hence a clean surgery and great surgical skill are required to perform pelvic surgeries.
Tubal Fertility Surgery
Tubal blocks are removed with laparotomy or laparoscopy. Reversal of Tubectomy can also be performed. In this procedure, the tubes are reattached by microsurgery.
Correction of Uterine Abnormalities
Surgical corrections of the uterine abnormalities are done through hysteroscopy – like septal resection, Myomectomy & Polypectomy.
Cysts mean a sac filled with fluid. Laparoscopic Cystectomy is done to remove the entire cysts including the cyst wall. These cysts may be simple cysts or endometriotic cysts. E.g. PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) can cause problems in conceiving. The process known as ovarian drilling is done laparoscopically to improve ovulation & pregnancy chances.
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
A condition where there is excessive menstrual bleeding. Endometrial ablation is done if this bleeding doesn’t stop with medications. The inner lining of the uterus is destroyed in this procedure.
Male surgical treatments:
- (PESA) Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration:
The doctor passes a needle through the skin of the testicular sac. It is then placed in the epididymis. The small amount of fluid is removed and tested for the presence of the sperms.
- (TESA) Testicular Sperm Aspiration:
A needle is passed directly into the testis. A piece of the tissue is removed. It is then tested in the laboratory under a microscope for the presence of the sperms.
- (MESA) Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration:
The microscope is used to precisely locate the tubules of the epididymis. Then a needle is inserted in the tubule. With this procedure, a large number of sperms can be removed.
- (TESE ) Testicular Sperm Extraction:
In this procedure, the scrotum is opened. A large volume of testicular tissue is removed from multiple areas in the testis. A microscope is then used to identify sperms and extract them.
- Micro Dissection TESE.
Microdissection is done with the help of a microscope to locate areas from where sperm tissue can be removed. Because of this procedure, there is less damage to the inside of the testicles. A large number of sperms can be obtained.
- Vasectomy Reversal:
Vasectomy reversal is a process used for reconnecting the male reproductive tract after a vasectomy. Vasectomy reversal reconnects the tubes so the sperms are able to get into the semen. By this procedure, the fertility is restored in a male.