Generally, An egg and sperm are fertilized in a man’s body. The fertilized egg attached to the lining of the womb and continues to grow and thus the baby is born after 9 months. This process is a natural conception and also called unassisted conception.
In vitro fertilization is an assisted reproductive technology generally used by patients who face problems in conceiving or infertility issues. During In vitro fertilization (IVF), the egg is manually combined with the sperm in the laboratory and allowed to grow. Babies who are born with IVF treatment are generally healthy when compared to other infertility treatments.
In Vitro fertilization Procedure
In-Vitro Fertilization helps the woman to become pregnant by using special medical techniques. IVF is the most often used and less expensive fertility treatment that has shown positive results in the mum number of cases.
IVF procedure can be explained in five basic steps:
Superovulation or Stimulation
Fertility drugs are generally given to boost egg production. One egg is produced normally in a month without the use of fertility drugs. Fertility drugs help in producing several eggs in a short period of time. Frequent transvaginal ultrasounds are required to monitor the ovaries and blood tests are also done to check the hormone levels in the body.
Egg retrieval is done with the help of a minor surgery called follicular aspiration. Ultrasound images are examined before performing this surgery. One egg is removed at a time through this surgery. In rare complicated cases a pelvic laparoscopy is required to remove the eggs.
Insemination and Fertilization
The mixing of sperm and egg is referred to as insemination. The best quality of the egg is selected and placed with sperm for mixing in the laboratory conditions. Eggs and sperms are placed in a chamber that is maintained at a suitable temperature for the fertilization to begin.
In cases where the fertilization chances are less, the sperm is directly injected into the egg. This process is called Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
The fertilized egg divides and becomes an embryo. Within 5 days a normal embryo will have several cells that are actively dividing. A pre-implantation genetic diagnosis can be done in cases when the couples are having a doubt of passing a genetic disorder to the baby. During this diagnosis, each cell is carefully removed and examined for genetic disorders. This kind of diagnostic procedure can help in giving birth to a healthy baby.
Selected embryos are placed in the womb after 3-5 days of fertilization. More than one embryo can also be placed in the womb at the same time that will result in the development of twins, triplets, or more. The decision of transferring more than one embryo depends on the woman’s age and her health condition.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment generally result in healthy babies as there is less chance of transferring infection or any genetic disorders. Genetic disorders can be diagnosed before transferring the embryos to the mother.
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