Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure. The operating surgeons conduct this procedure with the help of a laparoscope. A laparoscope is an instrument, which enables the doctor to see the internal organs of the abdominal or pelvic cavity of a patient. The laparoscope is a long tube-like hollow structure. It is a fiber optic instrument. A camera is attached to the other end which shows the images on a screen put in front of the surgeon.
The patient is first put under general anesthesia to undergo laparoscopy. A small cut is made in the belly button. Then the laparoscope is inserted in the abdominal cavity through the belly button. The abdominal cavity is inflated with CO2. Now, another port might be inserted in some other region of the abdomen. Because of this procedure, the surgeon is able to see intra abdominal organs like intestines, pancreas, liver and pelvic organs like uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries from outside.
Laparoscopy for Infertility:
Nowadays, laparoscopy is one of the key parts in the diagnosis as well as treatment of infertility. Using laparoscopy, it is possible for the operating surgeon to see the reproductive organs from their outer surface. A thorough evaluation of the organs can lead to a diagnosis and at the same time, corrective surgeries can also be performed. The whole procedure can be recorded.
What can be Diagnosed and Treated by Laparoscopy?
The endometriotic tissue can be seen in laparoscopy if present. And a corrective measure can be done by removing maximum tissue.
Fibroids can be diagnosed, their extent can be gauged and the surgeon may be able to remove them depending on the size.
3. Ectopic Pregnancy
In this condition, the pregnancy occurs in the fallopian tube. This is a life-threatening condition. It can be diagnosed by laparoscopy and can be removed in the same setting leading to a possible conservation of the tube.
4. Removal of ovarian cysts
This procedure is also called as ovarian cystectomy, in which the ovarian cysts (a cavity filled with water) is drained or removed.
5. Adhesion removal
If there are any adhesions or scar tissue formation around the tubes and the ovaries, it can be identified and removed with the help of laparoscopy.
6. Tubal Recanalization
The blocked tubes can be opened by either removing the in place clips or rings or by reconnecting the severed ends by micro suturing.
7. Tubal Patency Test
With the help of laparoscope, the patency of the tube can be checked by using a dye.
Pelvic inflammatory diseases may be present which mostly affects the tubes.
Laparoscopy is a type of minimally invasive procedure. The hospital stay is reduced considerably. The patient does not get an ugly looking scar as only 1 stitch small cuts are made. The postoperative pain is less. The chances of postoperative infections are less as the not much internal area is exposed. It is actually cost effective if all the previously mentioned things are considered as hospital stay is reduced and postoperative chances of infections are decreased.