Endometriosis is a painful disorder caused due to the growth of tissue outside uterus that normally lines inside of uterus (endometrium). This painful disorder can be seen in ovaries, bowel, or tissue that lines pelvis. It is quite rare to see endometrial tissue spreading beyond the Pelvic region.
Endometriosis which is caused due to the displaced endometrial tissue continues to act normal, over time, the tissue thickens, breaks down and eventually bleeds during the menstrual cycle. As this tissue finds no way out to exit body, it gets trapped within and leads to the formation of patches of endometriosis. When ovaries get affected with endometriosis, chocolate cysts may be formed.
The abnormal tissue around the affected organs can cause irritation to the surrounding tissues and may eventually lead to scar tissue and adhesions.
Medical science has not yet found the exact cause of endometriosis some of the possible explanations are explained below.
- Back Flow of Menstrual Blood: When the menstrual blood that contains endometrial cells flow into the pelvic cavity through the fallopian tubes.
- Surgical scar implantation: On the surgical incision site, if endometrial cells get attached can create scar implants after surgery.
- Immune System Disorder: There can be immune system disorder that cannot make body destroy endometrial tissue that is grown outside the uterus.
Endometriosis can cause impaired fertility due to scar tissue (adhesions) like a cobweb. And in an instance where the ovary is wrapped in adhesion, the egg may not be able to reach the tube. So, scars and adhesions can become the main cause of obstruction in the fallopian tube and prevent egg and sperm unification.
- Pelvic Examination: Doctor examines patients manually by touching pelvic areas to investigate the presence of cyst (a cavity filled with fluid), reproductive organs, and also scars behind the uterus.
- Ultrasonography: This examination is conducted to identify the presence of cyst formation due to endometriosis (endometriomas).
- Laparoscopy: It is conducted to check for the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. In this examination, Infertility Specialist will be able to precisely get information about the location, extend, and endometrial implants. The Patient does undergo the entire procedure under general anesthesia.
Infertility specialists do begin with conservative treatment and if the patient’s problem is severe then surgery becomes essential. Some of the conservative treatments are pain medications, hormone therapy, and conservative surgery, and if they are proven futile then doctors resort to Assisted productive technologies, ART, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). ART is much preferred to become pregnant in this condition.
- Pain Medication: To control menstrual cramps, Doctors do prescribe pain relievers such as ibuprofen, naproxen.
- Hormone Therapy: Pain of Endometriosis can be eliminated or put under control by including supplement hormones.
- Conservative surgery: Doctors try to remove endometriosis to preserve uterus and ovaries and increase the chances of pregnancy.